Successful organizational change often requires understanding other people with differing viewpoints


1.1 JOURNAL: Record your reflections and document your answers to the Questions for a Better Understanding found on page 139 with regard to this module.

1.2 Know Yourself Challenge: Two women, Isabel Myers and Kathleen Briggs, developed a system of perspective on recognizing and understanding people.[1] It uses four basic human preferences of one extreme or the other:

            Extravert (E) or Introvert (I)              Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)   

            Sensing (S) or Intuitive (N)                 Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)

There are sixteen different combinations of these four preferences. They are expressed in four letter combinations, such as ESTJ or INFP. Paul Keirsey simplified the sixteen combinations into four primary types: SJ, SP, NT and NF.

            Myers and Briggs developed a test available through psychologists which determines a person’s type. Simplified versions are available online[2] or in books.[3]

            What is your four letter type? _____  _____  _____  _____             

            Which is your two letter type?             NT       NF      SP       SJ

Successful organizational change often requires understanding other people with differing viewpoints, understanding our own preferences and how others perceive us.      Understanding others is key to communicating the need for innovation in a way that reduces anxiety and furthers adoption.





[1] The quote is a selection from David O. Kueker’s Fuller Seminary Doctor of Ministry project submitted in September, 2007, entitled Diagnosis, Dialogue, and Decision: A Threefold Process of Revitalization For the Illinois Great Rivers Conference.
It is shared here in recognition of its 12th Anniversary along with comments to update and provide perspective on the material. The original project was a Training Manual/Study Guide of three Seminars supported by three chapters of research and an Introduction. The material is available for download at In 2009 it was provided for purchase as a softcover book entitled Designing Discipleship Systems: Christian Disciple Making For Any Size Church, Any Theology through

[2][3] [4][5] [6][7] [8]

All Scripture quotations are from the Revised Standard Version of the Bible, copyright © 1946, 1952, and 1971 National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.

[1]Center for Applications of Psychological Type,

The Story of Isabel Briggs Myers, (accessed June 15, 2007).

[2]David Keirsey, Keirsey Temperament Sorter® – II Personality Instrument, under (accessed June 15, 2007). Paul Tieger and Barbara Barron-Tieger, What’s Your Personality Type? (accessed June 15, 2007).

[3]Otto Kroeger and Janet M. Thuesen, Type Talk: The Sixteen Personality Types That Determine How We Live, Love, and Work (New York: Dell Publishing, 1989). Paul Tieger and Barbara Barron-Tieger, Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type (New York: Little Brown & Company, 2001).

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